As part of his election campaign Trump would cut Muslim immigration and helped stir up anti Islamic sentiments and gain many votes.
Once elected his first foreign visit was to Saudi Arabia which is a bit of mystery. They are a big oil producer and exporter, but have not been a big ally of United States. During the Trump reign efforts were made to create new ties between Arab nations and Israel which on the surface should be welcome by everyone. On the negative side one of the understandings was that they were expected to accept the Israeli perspective on Palestine.
Later on the Trump administration made efforts to please Israel perhaps the biggest effort was to move the U.S. embassy to Jerusalem. This pleased evangelical voters and Sheldon Adelson, the casino owner, but not so much Muslims who see Jerusalem as one of their holy cities. Going back to Harry Truman each American president has protected Israel through their many attacks by their Arab neighbors.
Getting out of the Iran agreement apparently was done to please Israel and one casino donor. Iran did not do anything against the agreement. The effects are hard to measure, but are mostly negative. Iran felt it was acceptable to edge towards the nuclear bomb which by itself would cause anxiety to its Arab neighbors. They sought to find new friends. More on Iran's role: http://www.therealjohndavidson.com/2022/10/the-iranian-dilemma.html
Somehow when the Russians got stymied in trying to crush Ukraine, Iran decided to supply some military supplies such as drones. They are natural enemies, but they both hate the U.S.
Iran has been implicated in doing small things to aggravate the U.S. One of their projects has always been to support the Palestinian cause. Some suspect they have given military aid to Hamas.
Putin needs a distraction. Already some factions in the U.S. are wanting to cut back military support for Ukraine. Trump denies any Russian support for his election campaigns, but that is very difficult to deny. It is also difficult to deny that for one reason or another Trump did Putin's bidding. See http://www.therealjohndavidson.com/2019/06/house-of-trump-house-of-putin.html and http://www.therealjohndavidson.com/2022/10/freezing-order.html
Benjamin Netanyahu has been focused on changing Israeli law to protect himself. Many are accusing him of being distracted from signs of Hamas planning a major attack. The attack seemed aligned with another Arab country, Saudi Arabia signalling they were willing to make an agreement with Israel. Apparently Hamas did see an opportunity.
President Biden is locked in to past U.S. commitments and feels obligated to maintain a relationship with Israel. He noted there have been provocations from settlers on occupied land. He also suggested he hoped talks would get back on track for a two state solution. This seems to be a small step in the right direction. Americans have given Israel several billions of dollars of military equipment and have used their veto at the United Nations to squash any votes that might hurt Israel.
Nobody can be certain what happen in the next weeks or next few years. Has mankind learned to better deal with the cycle of violence? More thoughts: http://www.therealjohndavidson.com/2023/11/can-we-stop-cycle-of-violence.html
Hatred is a powerful force that makes it almost impossible to understand how your interests have been subverted. I keep hoping a disaster will open the truth, but hatred always seems to have the upper hand. How can you trust your enemy when they don't trust you?